Heracles ( Hercules ), is the 50 th feature film animation and the 35 th “animated classic” of Disney .
Released in 1997 , he is inspired by the character of Hercules in Greek and Roman mythologies .
The film inspired the animated TV series of the same name , released in 1998 and three episodes were grouped under the title Hercules: Zero to Hero (in reference to the song of the film), released directly in video in 1999.
While all the gods of Olympus celebrate the birth of little Hercules , Hades the god of the Underworld prepares a terrible plan that will make him the master of all the gods: he plans to release the Titans at the next alignment of the planets so that these rid him of Zeus . However, a problem remains to be solved: the Moires have predicted that he would be defeated by Hercules whose strength is superhuman. So he’s charging the demonsPain and panic to kidnap him and make him deadly by making him drink a magic potion. But the toddler does not swallow all the potion (both demons drop the last drop), which allows him to maintain his legendary strength.
Abandoned on Earth , he is taken in by two “deadly” farmers who, having been unable to have children, raise him as if he were their own son. But Hercules feels that he does not belong to this world because he is far too different from other young people of his age. His adoptive parents then reveal to him that he is not their true son and that he was found with a medallion bearing the symbol of the gods. Hercules decides to go in search of his origins but to return to Olympus, Hercules must become a hero. The satyr Philoctetes (called Phil), coach of the legendary heroes, agrees to take care of him. Days after days, Hercules becomes stronger but he meets a young woman he falls in love with, Megara(known as Meg), which he does not know has sold his soul to Hades. Hades then uses Megara to draw Hercules into a trap. While Hercules had temporarily given up his strength, he must face a Cyclops and Megara will finally sacrifice himself for Hercules by being crushed by a column in his place, his soul descends in the underworld. In an attempt to save her, Hercules also joins the underworld and meets the master of the place, Hades. Hercules offers him to exchange his soul for Megara’s, which Hades hastens to accept. But at the moment of cutting the thread that connects Hercules to life, the wire refuses to give in because Zeus decided to make his son a God considering that he finally deserves it. A cloud then arrives near Hercules and takes him along with Mégara, Pegasusand Phil in front of the portal reaching Mount Olympus where Zeus and Hera warmly welcome Hercules. Zeus tells him that a hero is not measured by the size of his strength but by the strength of his heart. Hercules can finally “go home”. Although this is his dream forever, Hercules has finally found his place and he prefers to stay on Earth with Megara rather than go to Olympus. Moreover, before kissing Megara, Hercules will tell him: “A life without you, Meg, even immortal would be too empty”. The story ends with a big party on Olympus in honor of Hercules.
- Original title: Hercules
- French title: Hercule
- Director: John Musker and Ron Clements
- Scenario: Ron Clements , Barry Johnson , Irene Mecchi , John Musker , Bob Shaw and Donald McEnery , assisted by Barry Johnson (supervision), Kaan Kalyon , Kelly Wightman , Randy Cartwright , John Ramirez , Jeff Snow , Vance Gerry , Kirk Hanson , Francis Glebas , Tamara Lusher-Stocker , Bruce Morris , Mark Kennedy , Don Dougherty andThom Enriquez
- Graphic design :
- Artistic direction: Andy Gaskill
- Production designer: Gerald Scarfe
- Styling: Sue Nichols (supervision)
- Artistic Coordinator: Dan Hansen
- Technical Coordinator: Ann Tucker
- Three ( Layout ): Rasoul Azadani (supervision)
- Sets: Thomas Cardone (supervision), Lisa Keene Robledo (supervision Paris)
- Finalizing ( Clean-up ): Nancy Kniep (supervision)
- Animation :
- Supervision: Andreas Deja , Randy Haycocok , Eric Goldberg , Nik Ranieri , Ken Stuart Duncan , Ellen Woodbury , Anthony Derosa , Michael Show , James Lopez , Brian Ferguson , Dominique Monfery , Richard Bazley , Nancy Beimanand Oskar Urretabizkaia
- Animated characters: Patrick Delage , George Abolin , Tom Gately , Sahin Ersöz , Gilda Palinginis-Kouros , Douglas Krohn , John Morel , Bill Waldman , Mark Smith , Andreas Wessel-Therhorn , Michael Cedeno , Danny Galieote , Michael Stocker , Anthony Ho Wong , Eric Walls , Raul Garcia , Caroline Cruikshank , Teddy Hall , Bert Klein , Tom Roth, Richard Hoppe , Theresa Wiseman , Teresa Martin , James Baker , Bolhem Bouchiba , Roger Chiasson , Eric Delbecq , Juanjo Guarnido , Jamie Oliff , Dave Kuhn , Sergio Pablos , Mike Polvani , Jared Beckstrand , Joe Oh , Mark Pudleiner , Stéphane Sainte Foi , Robert Bryan , Catherine Poulain , William Recinos , Yoshimichi Tamura ,David Block , Steven Peter Gordon , Kent Hammerstrom , Jeffrey Johnson , David Hancock , Mike Kunkel , Enis Tahsin Ozgur , Robert Espanto Domingo , Borja Montoro Cavero , Adam Dykstra , Daniel T. Hofstedt , Jay Jackson , Daniel O’Sullivan , Marc Duval EOCHE, Ron Husband , Thierry Goulard , David Berthier , Kim Sang-Jin , Howard Baker , Raffaella Filipponi, Steve Hunter , Bill Fletcher , William Miller , Mike Merell , Michael Swofford , Chris Bailey (in) , Dave Kupczyk , Jean-Luc Ballester and David Allan Zaboski
- Special effects: Mauro Maressa (supervision)
- Digital Animation (GCI): Roger Gould (supervision)
- Verification ( Check ): Janet Bruce, Hortensia Casagran (supervision)
- Sound: Gary Rydstrom (supervision)
- Editing: Tom Finan (film supervisor), Earl Ghaffari and Kathleen Forgarty-Bennett (music)
- Composer: Alan Menken
- Songs: David Zippel (lyrics), Alan Menken (music)
- Orchestrations: Danny Troob and Michael Starobin
- Voice arrangements and direction: Michael Kosarin
- Production Manager: Peter del Vecho
- Associate Producer: Kendra Haaland
- Delegate Producers: Alice Dewey , John Musker and Ron Clements
- Production: Walt Disney Pictures
- Distribution: Buena Vista Pictures Distribution
- Budget: approximately 70 000 000 USD
- Format: Colors – 1.66: 1 ( 1.85: 1 extended) – Dolby Stereo
- Duration: 89 minutes
- Release dates: United States : ; France :
Note: The list of “credits” in the credits is too long to be quoted in extenso here, are taken only the main contributors.
- Tate Donovan : Hercules
- Josh Keaton : Young Hercules
- Roger Bart : Young Hercules (vocals)
- Danny DeVito : Philoctetes
- James Woods : Hades, Lord of the Underworld
- Susan Egan : Megara
- Bob Goldthwait : Pain
- Matt Frewer : Panic (Panic)
- Rip Torn : Zeus
- Samantha Eggar : Hera, Hercules’ Mother (Mother of Hercules)
- Barbara Barrie : Alcmene, Hercules Foster Mother (Mother of Hercules)
- Hal Holbrook : Amphitryon, Hercules Foster Father (Foster Father of Hercules)
- Paul Shaffer : Hermes, the God Messenger
- Amanda Plummer : Clotho, First Fate
- Carole Shelley : Lachesis, second Fate (Second Moire)
- Paddi Edwards : Atropos, Third Fate
- Lillias White : Calliope, Muse of Epics
- Vanéese Y. Thomas : Clio, Muse of History
- Cheryl Freeman : Melpomene, Muse of Tragedy
- The Chanze : Terpsichore, Muse of Dance
- Roz Ryan : Thalia, Muse of Comedy
- Patrick Pinney : Cyclops (The Cyclops)
- Corey Burton : Titans / Burnt Man / End-of-the-World Man / Tour Bus Guide (Bus Guide)
- Jim Cummings : Nessus, the Centaur / Pot Maker / Tall and Elderly Thebians
- Keith David : Apollo, the Sun God (Apollo, the Sun-God)
- Mary Kay Bergman : Earthquake Lady / Wood, Water and Earth Nypmhs / Teenage Girls
- Kathleen Freeman : Heavyset Woman
- Bug Hall : Little Boy
- Kellen Hathaway : Little Boy
- Wayne Knight : Demetrius, the Pot Maker
- Aaron Michael Metchik : Ithicles
- Charlton Heston : Narrator
- Emmanuel Garijo : Hercules
- Emmanuel Dahl : Young Hercules (singing)
- Patrick Timsit : Philoctete
- Dominique Collignon-Maurin : Hades
- Mimi Félixine : Megara / Calliope , muse of epic poetry
- Éric Métayer : Punishment / Panic
- Benoît Allemane : Zeus
- Sophie Deschaumes : Hera
- Rosine Cadoret : Alcmene
- Jean Lescot : Amphitryon
- Patrice Dozier : Hermès
- Perrette Pradier : Atropos, first Moire
- Jacqueline Staup : Lachèsis, second Moire
- Colette Venhard : Clotho, third Moir
- Norma Ray : Clio , Museum of History
- Jessica Parkers : Melpomene , Museum of Tragedy
- Debbie Davis : Terpsichore , Muse of Dance
- Assitan Dembele : Thalia , muse of the Comedy
- Michel Barbey : A Cyclops / A Titan
- Marc Alfos : Nessus
- Said Amadis : Demetrius
- Charles Pestel : Ithicles
- Jean Davy : Narrator
- Georges Aubert , Jacques Ciron and Michel Vocoret : villagers
- Annie Didion, Jean-Loup Horwitz , Stéphane Marais, Charlyne Pestel and Véronique Rivière: additional voices
- Antoine Durand : Hercules
- Hugolin Chevrette : Young Hercules
- Joël Legendre : Hercules (vocals)
- Luis de Cespedes : Phil
- Jean-Luc Montminy : Hades
- Céline Bonnier : Meg
- Dominique Faure: Meg (vocals)
- Bernard Fortin : Pain
- Gabrielle Dhavernas : Punishment (child)
- François Sasseville : Panic
- Kim Jalabert : Panic (child)
- Marcel Sabourin : Zeus
- Élise Bertrand : Hera
- Sébastien Dhavernas : Hermès
- Elizabeth Lesieur : Alcmene
- Aubert Pallascio : Amphitryon
- Hubert Gagnon : Arès
- Elizabeth Chuvalidze : First Parque
- Lenie Scoffie : Second Parque / Thebain
- Arlette Sanders : Third Park / Thebath
- Vincent Davy : Narrator
- Benoît Marleau : Cyclops
- Sylvie Boucher : Muse
- Julie Massicotte : Muse
- Mary Lou Gauthier : Muse Terpsichore (vocals)
- Julie Leblanc : Muse (vocals)
- Linda Benoy : Muse Thalia (vocals)
- Lina Boudreau : Muse (vocals)
- Lana Carbonneau : Muse (vocals)
- Jean Fontaine : Nessus
- Jacques Lavallée : Apollo
- André Montmorency : Demetrius / Merchant
- Louis-Georges Girard : Man at the agora
- Nicolas Pensa : Boy at the agora
Songs from the movie
- Pure Gospel I or Pure Truth I in Quebec (The Gospel Truth I) – The Muses
- Pure Gospel II or The Pure Truth II in Quebec (The Gospel Truth II) – The Muses
- Pure Gospel III or Pure Truth III in Quebec (The Gospel Truth III) – The Muses
- The World which is mine or I believe in my destiny in Quebec (Go the Distance) – Young Hercules
- The World which is mine or I believe in my destiny in Quebec (Go the Distance) (reprise) – Young Hercules
- I still have hope or One last time in Quebec (One Last Hope) – Philoctète
- From zero to hero or zero to hero in Quebec (Zero to Hero) – The Muses
- I will never admit or The Reasons of the Heart in Quebec (I Will not Say) – Meg and the Muses
- A star is born (A Star Is Born) – The Muses
- Go the Distance (ending credits) – Michael Bolton
- No imports the Distancia (end credits) – Ricky Martin
- Sentimentale ( I’m not Saying) , end credits) – Jenny Mac Kay
- Nomination for Oscar for the best original song (Alan Menken and David Zippel for Go the distance )
- Golden Globe Nomination for Best Original Song (Alan Menken and David Zippel for Go the Distance )
- June 14, 1997 – United States (premiere in New York at New Amsterdam Theater 1 )
- June 27, 1997 – United States and Canada
- July 3, 1997 – Argentina
- July 4, 1997 – Brazil and Mexico
- July 5, 1997 – South Korea
- July 10, 1997 – Hong Kong
- July 26, 1997 – Japan
- August 20, 1997 – Singapore (First)
- September 4, 1997 – Singapore
- September 11, 1997 – New Zealand
- September 12, 1997 – Philippines
- September 18, 1997 – Australia
- October 10, 1997 – United Kingdom
- 14 November 1997 – Denmark and Sweden
- November 17, 1997 – Spain
- November 20, 1997 – Germany and the Netherlands
- November 21, 1997 – Poland and Switzerland
- November 22, 1997 – Iceland
- November 26, 1997 – France and Belgium
- November 27, 1997 – Hungary
- 28 November 1997 – Estonia , Portugal and South Africa
- December 5, 1997 – Finland , Italy and Norway
- December 11, 1997 – Slovenia
- December 12, 1997 – Mexico (out)
- January 23, 1998 – Turkey
- May 3, 2003 – Norway (Kristiansand International Children’s Film Festival)
- February 3, 1998 – VHS (Quebec)
- August 1998 – VHS and Laserdisc with 4/3 reframing (1.33: 1).
- November 9, 1999 – DVD (Quebec) with respected format (1.66: 1)
- 1 st August 2000 – VHS and DVD (Quebec) in the Collection “gold standard” with 4/3 cropping
- October 15, 2002 – VHS and DVD with 4/3 format.
- October 16, 2013 – exclusive Blu-Ray with 16/9 format.
John Musker and Ron Clements were drawn to the mythological aspect of the film and decided in autumn 1993 to make the film and produce it, helped by Alice Dewey 1 . Musker and Clements spent nine months defining the guideline, developing the initial script, and designing with Andy Gaskill the overall visual appearance; it then oversaw the artistic direction 1 . Animators spent the summer of 1994 in Greece to draw inspiration from natural scenery and archaeological sites, while cartoonist and British political cartoonist Gerald Scarfe , helped with the creation of characters 1. The entertainment began in early 1995 and required nearly 700 artists, as well as the first use Disney’s morphing digital (computer-aided) 1 .
The film is full of references to the labors of Hercules , including the battle against the Hydra of Lerna ( 2 e feat). The Nemean lion ( 1 st feat), the boar Erymanthus ( 4 e feat) and Stymphalian birds ( 6 th feat) appear during the song zero from a hero ; capturing Cerberus ( 12 e feat) is at the end of the film. While Hercules poses to be painted, Phil mentions that he must clean the stables of Augias (5 e feat) and recovering the Hippolytus belt , queen of the Amazon ( 9 e feat).
On the other hand, several freedoms have been taken with the myth. Among those :
- Hades jealous his brother and envy his throne while it is not in Mythology.
- Alcmene is no longer here the true mother of Hercules, but her foster mother. In the legend, this one is seduced by Zeus , who took the appearance of her husband, Amphytrion . In the same way, Alcmene and Amphytrion are of royal blood, and not peasants; as for their son, half-brother of Hercules, his name is actually Iphicles and not Ithicles.
- The snakes sent to the cradle of the young Hercules, are by Hades in the film, while in Mythology, they are sent by Hera herself.
- The drink in the bottle that the young Hercules drinks gives him the weaknesses of the mortals. In Mythology, it is exactly the opposite: Hercules must swallow a beverage that is supposed to make him immortal, it is the breast milk of Hera asleep. When she wakes up, the surprised goddess pushes the child a little too violently, sending off a spurt of her milk: Heracles would thus be at the origin of the milky way.
- In mythology, the term ” hero ” refers to a mortal of direct or indirect divine descent. A being from two gods is called a god.
- While in Greek mythology, there are nine muses , there are only five in the film: Calliope (epic poetry), Clio (story), Melpomene (tragedy), Terpsichore (dance) and Thalia (comedy).
- In some versions of the myth, the famous “works” are a punishment inflicted by the Gods after Hercules, madly attacked by Hera , jealous of her husband’s incarcerations, slaughtered his wife, Megara , and his children, and are therefore after the events of the film.
- The Titans are presented as monsters while they are, in mythology, the parents of the Olympian gods.
- The Cyclops had been shut up by the titans and released by Zeus. In return, they helped him fight the Titans , offering him especially the Lightning .
- Like many works after Antiquity, the title of the film uses the Latin name of the hero, Hercules, while its original name in Greek mythology is Heracles .
- In the myth, the centaur Chiron deals with the education of Hercules; in the film, it is the satyr Philoctète who takes care of it, whereas in fact, Philoctète is a hero of the Trojan War that does not accompany Hercules. In the film, he is also credited with learning other heroes such as Achilles and Jason , while once again, it is Chiron’s work.
- Philoctete seems to admire Achilles and quotes him several times as an example. The Iliad and Mythology show, however, that this character lived after Hercules.
- It is said that Hercules defeated the gorgonians whereas, according to the myth, two of them were immortal and that the third, Medusa , was killed by Perseus .
Out and Home
In the United States
When it was released in the United States, the film received positive, albeit rarely enthusiastic, criticism from American critics. In the Chicago Sun Times , Roger Ebert gives the film a score of 3.5 out of 4 and appreciate graphics, voice and rhythm 2 . In the New York Times , Janet Maslin gives a positive review of the film 3 , saying that “after a series of disappointments for the Disney animation is back in top form with this mythology lesson gleefully bastardized” 4 . She appreciates the work of visual research, the inventiveness of the gags and dubbing, while regretting that the portrait of the hero is so classic:”Again a teenager who leaves for a quest and sings a ballad about his hopes and dreams” 5 .
Critic James Berardinelli gives a half-hearted criticism, saying that the film gives an impression of routine and ease that prevent him from achieving the quality of previous Disney classics: ” Hercules wins the dubious prize of being the cartoon the least enchanting produced by Disney for more than a decade ” 6 . In the Washington Post , Desson Thomson sees Hercules a “tasteless cartoon and lacking life” 7 . Rita Kempley, another Washington Postreporter , sees Looney Tunesesque parody in the moviemuscled peplums, celebrity worship and, interestingly, the studio’s own aggressive commercial practices ” 8 . She blames him for wanting to be plugged to the point of becoming infuriating 9 and not able to arouse emotion like other Disney classics.
The film receives an unfavorable reception from Greek media and the public, and the attempt of Disney to organize a big preview of the film in Greece on the hill of the Pnyx , place of political assemblies during Antiquity, causes a scandalized reaction that led the Greek state to cancel the event 10 . The Athens newspaper Adsmevtos Typos states in October 1997: “Once again, foreigners are distorting our history and our culture for the sole purpose of serving their business interests. […] To add insult to injury, they now want to use Pnyx Hill and our story as a launching pad for their future profits. ”
In the daily Libération 11 , Michel Roudevitch gives a generally favorable critique of the film, while qualifying it as “sometimes weighing peplum-pudding” . Roudevitch hails the ambition of Gerald Scarfe’s graphic work, which draws directly from the Greek arts while lending the cartoon its sharp graphic style, and appreciates the music as well as the final clash against the titans. On the other hand, he regrets the “not always good” word games and gags and the “too mechanical” technical prowess in the sequence of Lerne’s hydra.
|Country||Box Office||1998 Ranking|
|global||$ 252,712,101||12 th 12|
|International||$ 153,600,000||10 th|
|United States / Canada||$ 99,112,101||17 th|
|la France||4,426,986 entries||5 th|
|Germany||3,235,096 entries 13||##|
|UK||3,090,923 entries 13||##|
|Spain||2,291,108 entries 13||##|
|Italy||1 869 044 entries 13||##|
|Swiss||309 888 entries 14||10 th|
Around the film
- The sets of the songs This world which is mine ( I believe in my destiny in Quebec) and Never I will confess are very similar to those of the song This blue dream ( A new world in Quebec) of Aladdin (1992), when Aladdin and Jasmine fly over a Greek garden.
- When Phil hears the conversation between Meg and Hades, he pulls out his head in the manner of the seven dwarves when they discover Snow White for the first time.
- In the short scene that seems to refer to the fight of Hercules against the Nemean lion , it is represented in an appearance reminiscent of that of Scar , the main villain of the Lion King (1994). Hercules then turned his skin as he poses for a portrait to be done by a painter 15 . It is possible that this is a nod from host Andreas Deja overseeing the character of Scar, who was also the animator overseeing Hercules.
- When Phil enters his hut in the company of Hercules, he bangs his head on the mast of the Argo . Ironically, in Greek mythology, Jason , the captain of the Argo, died when the mast of the ship fell on his head.
- On the payment card of Hercules, one can read VI V XI XIV XV XVI IV, ex. IV M BC, member since IM BC , which means “6 5 11 14 15 16 4, expires April 1000 BC, member since January 1000 before Christ”.
- In a garden with Megara, Hercules ruins a statue by throwing a projectile losing both arms to the latter. This statue is none other than the Venus de Milo .
- In the same garden, Megara facing Hercules is stung by the heart-shaped arrow held by a statue. The statue in question is Cupid , god of love.
- When Megara sings the song I never confess , a statue inspired neo-classical ( xix th century) appears on the screen. It is the Psyche revived by the kiss of Canova’s Love . This statue is in the Louvre , in Paris.
- From the hunchback of Notre-Dame (1996) to Kuzco, the megalomaniac emperor (2001) through Hercules and Tarzan (1999), many plans of Disney cartoons were animated in the Parisian studio (now closed) ), Walt Disney Animation France . From May 1999 to November 2000, his employees painted 213 of the 1392 sets of the film. In addition, the character of Helga Sinclair of Atlantis, the lost empire (2001) was totally created and supervised in Paris by Yoshimichi Tamura.
- A parade named Hercules’ Zero to Victory Hero Parade was given as of June 27, 1997 in Disneyland Parks and Disney-MGM Studios 1 .
- The scene where Hercules trains on one leg is a reference to Karate Kid , when Daniel Larusso is the heron (we even hear Phil quote the name of the film) [ref. necessary] .
- On October 30, 2015, singer Ariana Grande took over the song “Zero to Hero” for the American version of the album We Love Disney .
Title in different languages
- English : Hercules
- Arabic : هرقل ( Herqul )
- Chinese : 大力士 ( Dàilìshì )
- Korean : 헤라클레스 ( Herakeureseu )
- Spanish : Hércules (Spain)
- Finnish : Herkules
- English : Hercules
- Greek : Ηρακλής ( Iraklís )
- Hebrew : הרקולס
- Japanese : ヘ ラ ク レ ス ( Herakuresu )
- Norwegian : Herkules
- Polish : Herkules
- Portuguese : Hércules (Brazil)
- Russian : Геркулес ( Gerkoules )
- Slovak : Herkul
- Swedish : Herkules
- Turkish : Herkül
Notes and references
- ↑ a , b , c , d , e and f (in) Dave Smith, Disney A to Z: The Official Encyclopedia Updated , p. 262
- ↑ Robert Ebert, ” Hercules’ review [ archive ] ,” Chicago Sun Times , 27 June 1997. Accessed July 14, 2014.
- ↑ Oh Heavens! What a Hero! [ archive ] , article by Janet Maslin in The New York Times, June 13, 1997. Accessed July 14, 2014.
- ↑ ” After a run of relative Disappointments, Disney Animation is back in top form with this happily bastardized mythology lesson. “
- ↑ ” One more questing teen-ager who delivers a power ballad about his hopes and dreams. “
- ↑ ” Hercules Has the dubious distinction of being white the least-enchanting Disney cartoon HAS fashioned in over a decade. “
- ↑ ( fr ) Desson Howe, ” Disney’s Myth Conception [ archive ], ” Washington Post , June 27, 1997. Original Quote: Model: Foreign .
- ↑ (in) Rita Kempley, ” Disney’s Hercules : Myth for the Masses [ archive ] ,” Washington Post , 27 June 1997. Original quote: ” A Looney-Tunesy spoof of muscle-bound movies, celebrity worship and, curiously enough, the studio’s own shameless hucksterism. “
- ↑ ” The movie is annoyingly hip. “
- ↑ (in) Julia Llewellyn Smith and Ciaran Byrne, ” Greeks Put Hercules on Trial [ archive ] ,” The Nation , October 9, 1997. Accessed July 14, 2014.
- ↑ Michel Roudevitch, ” Hercules , a peplum pudding [ archive ] “, Libération , November 26, 1997. Page consulted on July 14, 2014.
- ↑ (in) ” Hercules ” [ archive ] , on Box Office (accessed August 26, 2012 )
- ↑ a , b , c and d (en) ” Hercules ” [ archive ] , on Light (accessedAugust 26, 2012 )
- ↑ (en) ” Hercules ” [ archive ] , on Pro Cinema (accessed August 26, 2012 )
- ↑ (in) David Koenig Mouse Under Glass , p. 260